Complications of Crohn's disease

People with Crohn's disease are at risk of developing a number of complications.

The two most common problems associated with Crohn's disease are discussed in more detail below.

Intestinal stricture

The inflammation of the bowel (intestines) in Crohn's disease can cause scar tissue to form, leading to the affected areas becoming narrowed. This is known as stricture.

If this happens, there's a risk of digestive waste causing an obstruction. Thismeansyou won't be able to pass any stools or you'll only be able to pass watery stools.

Other symptoms of bowel obstruction include:

  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • being sick (vomiting)
  • bloating
  • an uncomfortable feeling of fullness in your abdomen

Left untreated, there'sa risk the bowel could split (perforate). This createsa hole that thecontents of the bowel can leak from. You should contact your GP as soon as possible if you suspect your bowel is obstructed. If this isn't possible, call NHS 111 .

Intestinal stricture is usually treated with surgery to widen the affected section of intestine. In some cases this may be achieved without surgery, using a procedure called balloon dilation, which is performed during colonoscopy.

During balloon dilation, a colonoscope is passed up your back passage (rectum) and a balloon isinserted through the colonoscope. This is then inflated to open up the affected area.

Read diagnosing Crohn's disease for more information on colonoscopy.

If this doesn't work or is unsuitable, a surgical procedure known as a stricturoplasty may be needed to widen the affected area. During this operation, the surgeon widens the narrowed part of the intestine by opening it, reshaping it and sewing it back together.


If your digestive system becomes scarredas a result of excessive inflammation, Ulcer, peptic can develop.

Over time, the ulcers develop into tunnels that run from one part of your digestive system to another or, in some cases, to the bladder, vagina, anus or skin. These passageways are known as fistulas.

Small fistulas don't usually cause symptoms. However, larger fistulas can become infected and cause symptoms, such as:

  • a constant, throbbing pain
  • a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100F) or above
  • blood or pus in your stools
  • leakage of stools or mucus into your underwear

If a fistula develops on your skin (usually on or near the anus) it may release a foul-smelling discharge.

Biological medication is usually used to treat fistulas. Surgery is usually required if these aren't effective.

See diagnosing Crohn's disease for more information about these tests.

Content supplied by the NHS Website

Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 28 Nov 2016