Simple lifestyle changes can often help reduce high blood pressure (hypertension), although some people may need to take medication as well.
Your GP can advise you about changes you can make to your lifestyle and discuss whether they think you would benefit from medication.
Everyone with high blood pressure is advised to make the healthy lifestyle changes outlined below.
Whether medication is recommended depends on your blood pressure reading and your risk of developing problems such as heart attacks or strokes.
Your doctor will carry out some blood and urine tests, and ask questions about your health to determine your risk of other problems:
The various treatments for high blood pressure are outlined below. You can also read a summary of the pros and cons of the treatments for high blood pressure, allowing you to compare your treatment options.
Below are some changes you could make to your lifestyle to reduce high blood pressure. Some of these will lower your blood pressure in a matter of weeks, while others may take longer.
You can take these steps today, regardless of whether or not you're taking blood pressure medication. In fact, by making these changes early on you may be able to avoid needing medication.
Many people need to take a combination of different medicines.
The medication recommended for you at first will depend on your age and ethnicity:
You may need to take blood pressure medication for the rest of your life. But your doctor might be able to reduce or stop your treatment if your blood pressure stays under control for several years.
It's really important to take your medications as directed. If you miss doses, it won't work as effectively. The medication won't necessarily make you feel any different, but this doesn't mean it's not working.
Medications used to treat high blood pressure can have side effects, but most people don't experience any. If you do, changing medication will often help.
Common blood pressure medications are described below.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce blood pressure by relaxing your blood vessels. Common examples are enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, and ramipril. The most common side effect is a persistent dry cough. Other possible side effects include headaches, dizziness, and rash.
ARBs work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. They're often recommended if ACE inhibitors cause troublesome side effects. Common examples are candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, valsartan and olmesartan. Possible side effects includedizziness, headaches, and cold or flu -like symptoms.
Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure by widening your blood vessels. Common examples are amlodipine, felodipine and nifedipine. Other medicines such as diltiazem and verapamil are also available. Possible side effects include headaches, swollen ankles and constipation. Drinking grapefruit juice while taking some calcium channel blockers can increase your risk of side effects. Find out more about calcium channel blockers .
Sometimes known as water pills, diuretics work by flushing excess water and salt from the body through urine. They're often used if calcium channel blockers cause troublesome side effects. Common examples are indapamide and bendroflumethiazide.
Possible side effects include dizziness when standing up, increased thirst, needing to go to the toilet frequently, and a rash. Low potassium level (hypokalaemia) and low sodium level (hyponatraemia) may also be seen after long-term use.
Beta-blockers can reduce blood pressureby making your heart beat more slowly and with less force. They used to be a popular treatment for high blood pressure, but now only tend to be used when other treatments haven't worked.
This is because beta-blockers are considered less effective than other blood pressure medications. Common examples are atenolol and bisoprolol.
Possible side effects include dizziness, headaches, tiredness, and cold hands and feet.
Angina is chest pain caused by a reduced flow of blood to the heart, typically resulting from heart disease.
Antihypertensive medicine reduce high blood pressure (hypertension).
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. .
Cholesterol is a fatty substance made by the body that lives in blood and tissue. It is used to make bile acid, hormones and vitamin D.
Chronic usually means a condition that continues for a long time or keeps coming back.
A heart attack happens when there is a blockage in one of the arteries in the heart.
Platelets are cells in the blood that control bleeding by plugging the broken blood vessel and helping the blood to clot.
Hypertensive disease is characterized by a spike in maximal pressure, which is also called systolic pressure, or the rise of minimal pressure (diastolic) above normal values. Usually it is the systolic pressure that rises more so than the diastolic.
Factors that affect the onset of symptoms include constitutive genetic factors, neurogenic factors, environmental factors. And other factors like age and gender, profession, smoking, and intoxication.
Simple lifestyle changes can often help reduce high blood pressure (hypertension), although some people may need to take medication as well. Whether medication is recommended depends on your blood pressure reading and your risk of developing problems such as heart attacks or strokes.
High blood pressure can often be prevented or reduced by eating healthily, maintaining a healthy weight, taking regular exercise, drinking alcohol in moderation and not smoking.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension is usually made by evaluating the values of arterial pressure, and assessingÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â whether or notÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â they are above what is considered ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‹Å“normalÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢. This criterion defines which individuals face increased risks for heart and blood vessel damage.
Arterial pressure should be measured while the patient is lying down, and after they have rested for several minutes. The patient must feel calm and relaxed. Arterial pressure is measured by using an apparatus called aÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â sphygmomanometerÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â or a blood pressure meter.
Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension which is caused as a consequence of another condition. Patients suffer from arterial hypertension randomly. Following the appropriate examinations, it is discovered that this type of hypertension is caused as a result of another disease.
Diseases and conditions which may cause secondary hypertension are hypertension caused by kidney disease, renovascular hypertension, hypertension due to endocrine disease, hemodynamic hypertension, hypertension caused by pregnancy, hypertension due to consumption of contraceptive substances.