The treatment you receive for urinary incontinence will depend on the type of incontinence you have and the severity of your symptoms.
If your incontinence is caused by an underlying condition, you may receive treatment for this alongside your incontinence treatment.
Conservative treatments, which don't involve medication or surgery, are tried first. These include:
After this, medication or surgery may be considered.
This page is about non-surgical treatments for urinary incontinence. Find outabout surgery and procedures for urinary incontinence .
The various non-surgical treatments for urinary incontinence are outlined below.
You can also read a summary of the pros and cons of the non-surgical treatments for urinary incontinence , allowing you to compare your treatment options.
Your GP may suggest you make simple changes to your lifestyle to improve your symptoms. These changes can help improve your condition, regardless of the type of urinary incontinence you have.
For example, your GP may recommend:
Your pelvic floor muscles are the muscles you use to control the flow of urine as you urinate. They surround the bladder and urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder outside the body.
Weak or damaged pelvic floor muscles can cause urinary incontinence, so exercising these muscles is often recommended.
Your GP may refer you to a specialist to start a programme of pelvic floor muscle training.
Your specialist will assess whether you're able to squeeze (contract) your pelvic floor muscles and by how much.
If you can contract your pelvic floor muscles, you'll be given an individual exercise programme based on your assessment.
Your programme should include doing a minimum of eight muscle contractions at least three times a day and the recommended exercises for at least three months. If the exercises are helping after this time, you can keep on doing them.
Research suggests women who complete pelvic floor muscle training experience fewer leaking episodes and report a better quality of life.
In men, some studies have shown pelvic floor muscle training can reduce urinary incontinence, particularly after surgery to remove the prostate gland.
The British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) has more information on:
Pelvic floor exercises in women (PDF, 163kb)
Pelvic floor exercises in men(PDF, 174kb)
If you're unable to contract your pelvic floor muscles, using a device that measures and stimulates the electrical signals in the muscles may be recommended. This is called electrical stimulation.
A small probe will be inserted into the vagina in women or the anus in men. An electrical current runs through the probe, which helps strengthen your pelvic floor muscles while you exercise them.
You may find electrical stimulation difficult or unpleasant to use, but it may be beneficial if you're unable to complete pelvic floor muscle contractions without it.
Biofeedback is a way to monitor how well you're doing the pelvic floor exercises by giving you feedback as you do them.
There are several different methods of biofeedback:
There isn't much good evidence to suggest biofeedback offers a significant benefit to people using pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence, but the feedback may help motivate some people to carry out their exercises.
Speak to your specialist if you would like totry biofeedback.
Vaginal cones may be used by women to assist with pelvic floor muscle training. These small weights are inserted into the vagina.
You hold the weights in place using your pelvic floor muscles. When you can, you progress to the next vaginal cone, which weighs more.
Some women find vaginal cones uncomfortable or unpleasant to use, but they may help with stress or mixed urinary incontinence.
If you've been diagnosed with urge incontinence, one of the first treatments you may be offered is bladder training.
Bladder training may also be combined with pelvic floor muscle training if you have mixed urinary incontinence.
It involves learning techniques to increase the length of time between feeling the need to urinate and passing urine. The course will usually last for at least six weeks.
While incontinence products aren't a treatment for urinary incontinence, you might find them useful for managing your condition while you're waiting to be assessed or for treatment to take effect.
Incontinence products include:
For more information, see Can I get incontinence products on the NHS?
If stress incontinence doesn't significantly improve, surgery for urinary incontinence will often be recommended as the next step.
However, if you're unsuitable for surgery or want to avoid having an operation, you may benefit from a medication called duloxetine. This can help increase the muscle tone of the urethra, which should help keep it closed.
You'll need to take duloxetine by mouth twice a day, and will be assessed after two to four weeks to see if the medicine is beneficial or causing any side effects.
Possible side effects of duloxetine can include:
Don't suddenly stop taking duloxetine, as this can also cause unpleasant side effects. Your GP will reduce your dose gradually.
Duloxetine isn't suitable for everyone, however, so your GP will discuss any other medical conditions you have to determine if you can take it.
If bladder training isn't an effective treatment for your urge incontinence, your GP may prescribe a type of medication called an antimuscarinic.
Antimuscarinics may also be prescribed if you have overactive bladder syndrome, which is the frequent urge to urinate that can occur with or without urinary incontinence.
A number of different antimuscarinic medications can be used to treat urge incontinence, but common ones include oxybutynin, tolterodine and darifenacin.
These are usually taken by mouth two or three times a day, although an oxybutynin patch that you place on your skin twice a week is also available.
Your GP will usually start you at a low dose to minimise any possible side effects. The dose can then be increased until the medicine is effective.
Possible side effects of antimuscarinics include:
In rare cases, antimuscarinic medication can also lead to a type of glaucoma , a build-up of pressure within the eye, called angle-closure glaucoma.
You'll be assessed after four weeks to see how you're getting on with the medication, and every6 to 12 months thereafter if the medication continues to help.
Your GP will discuss any other medical conditions you have to determine which antimuscarinics are suitable for you.
Ifantimuscarinics are unsuitable for you, they haven't helped your urge incontinence or have caused unpleasant side effects, you may be offered an alternative medication called mirabegron.
Mirabegron causes the bladder muscleto relax, which helps the bladder fill up with and store urine. It is usually taken by mouth once a day.
Side effects of mirabegron can include:
Your GP will discuss any other medical conditions you have to determine whether mirabegron is suitable for you.
A medication called desmopressin may be used to treat nocturia, which is the frequent need to get up during the night to urinate, by helping to reduce the amount of urine produced by the kidneys.
Another type of medication taken late in the afternoon, called a loop diuretic, may also prevent you getting up in the night to pass urine.
Diuretic medicine increases the production and flow of urine from your body. By removing excess fluid from your body in the afternoon, it may improve symptoms at night.
Desmopressin is licensed to treat bedwetting , but isn't licensed to treat nocturia. Loop diuretics are also not licensed to treat nocturia.
This means that the medication may not have undergone clinical trials , a type of research that tests one treatment against another, to see if it's effective and safe in the treatment of nocturia.
However, your GP or specialist may suggest an unlicensed medication if they think it's likely to be effective and the benefits of treatment outweigh any associated risk.
If your GP is considering prescribing desmopressin or a loop diuretic, they should tell you it's unlicensed and discuss the possible risks and benefits with you.
Read about urinary incontinence, which is the unintentional passing of urine. It's a common problem that's thought to affect millions of people worldwide.
Read about the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Having urinary incontinence means you pass urine unintentionally.
Read about the causes of urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence occurs when the normal process of storing and passing urine is disrupted.
Read about diagnosing urinary incontinence. If you experience urinary incontinence, see your GP so they can determine the type of condition you have.
Read about non-surgical treatments for urinary incontinence. The treatment you receive will depend on the type of incontinence you have and the severity of your symptoms.
Read about surgical procedures for urinary incontinence, which may be recommended if other treatments are unsuccessful or unsuitable.