Medical Conditions

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Medical Conditions found related to the search term: C


Cardiomyopathy is a general term for diseases of the heart muscle, where the walls of the heart chambers have become stretched, thickened or stiff. This affects the heart's ability to pump blood around the body.

Coronary angioplasty

A coronary angioplasty is a procedure used to widen blocked or narrowed coronary arteries (the main blood vessels supplying the heart).


Clopidogrel is a prescriptionantiplatelet medicine. It reducesyour risk ofgetting blood clots by affecting cells in your blood called platelets.


Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bladder infection.

Coughing up blood

Coughing up blood can be alarming, but isn't usuallya sign of a serious problem if you're young and otherwise healthy . It's more a cause for concern in older people, particularly those who smoke .


Boils and carbunclesarered, painfullumps on the skin.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob (Prion) disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare and fatal condition that affects the brain. It causes brain damage that worsens rapidly over time.

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile, also known as C. difficile or C. diff,is a bacterium that can infect the bowel and cause diarrhoea.

Caesarean section

A caesarean section,or C-section,is an operation to deliveryour baby through a cut made in your tummy and womb.


Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of thebody grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that has no smell or taste. Breathing it incan make youunwell, and it can kill if you're exposed to high levels.

Carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid tumours

A carcinoid tumour is arare cancerof the neuroendocrine systemthe body system that produces hormones.

Coronary angiography

Cardiac catheterisation is an invasive diagnostic procedure that provides important information about the structure and function of the heart.

Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels.

Carotid endarterectomy

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedureto unblock a carotid artery. The carotid arteriesare themainblood vessels thatsupply the head and neck.

Cartilage damage

Cartilage damage is a relatively common type of injury. It often involves the knees, although joints such as the hips, ankles and elbows can also be affected.

Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is a procedure used to treat cataracts, where changes in the lens of the eye cause cloudy, blurry, or misty vision.

Congenital cataracts

Cataracts occur when changes in the lens of the eye cause it to become less transparent (clear). This results in cloudy or misty vision.


Cataracts occur when changes in the lens of the eye cause it to become less transparent (clear). This results in cloudy or misty vision. The lens is the crystalline structure that sits just behind your pupil (the black circle in the center of your eye).


A cavernomais acluster of abnormal blood vessels,usually found in the brain and spinal cord.

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in the cavernous sinuses. It can belife-threatening .

Corticobasal degeneration

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare condition that can cause gradually worsening problems with movement, speech, memory and swallowing.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy that can help youmanage your problems by changing the wayyou think and behave.

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy isthe general termfor a number of neurological conditions that affect movement and co-or dination.

Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems that affect the blood supply to the brain.

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a woman's cervix (the entrance to the womb from the vagina).

Cervical spondylosis

Cervical spondylosis isthe medical term for neck pain causedby age-related wear and teartobones and tissues.

Charles Bonnet syndrome

In Charles Bonnet syndrome, a person whose vision has started to deteriorate sees thingsthat aren't real (hallucinations).


Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment, with medicine used to kill cancer cells.

Chest infection, adult

Chest infections are common, especially after a Cold or flu during autumn and winter.

Chest pain

Chest pain can be caused by anything from muscle pain to a heart attack and should never be ignored.


Chilblains are small, itchy swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold temperatures. They most often affect the body's extremities, such as the toes, fingers, heels, ears and nose.


According to the General Chiropractic Council (GCC), chiropractic is " a health profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and the effects of these disorders on the function of the nervous system and general health " .


Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs).


Cholera is a potentially fatal bacterial infection caused by consuming contaminated food or water.


Acholesteatoma is an uncommon abnormal collection of skin cellsinside your ear.


Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test you may be offered during pregnancy to check if your baby hasagenetic or chromosomal condition, such as Downs, Edwards' or Patau's syndromes.

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys don't work as well as they should. It's a common condition often associated with getting older.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a type of dementia associated with repeated blows to the head and recurrent episodes of concussion.

Circumcision in boys

Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin.

Circumcision in men

Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin.


Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver caused by continuous long-term liver damage. Scar tissue replaceshealthy tissue in the liver and prevents the liver working properly.


Claustrophobia is the irrational fear of confined spaces.

Cleft lip and palate

A cleft is agap or split in the upper lip and/or roof of the mouth (palate). It is present from birth.

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches are excruciating attacks of pain in one side of the head, often felt around the eye.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that belongs to the herpes familyof viruses.


Coccydynia is a pain felt in your coccyx. This is the last bone at the bottom of the spine (tailbone). You can get it if you injure or strain your coccyx or the surrounding muscles and ligaments.


A cold is a mild viral infection of the nose, throat, sinuses and upper airways. It's very common and usually clears up on its own within a week or two.


Colic is thenameforexcessive, frequent crying ina baby who appears to be otherwise healthy. It's a common problem that affects up to one in five babies.


A colostomy is a surgical procedure to divert one end of the large intestine (colon) through an opening in the abdominal wall(tummy).

Colour vision deficiency

People with colour vision deficiencyfind it difficult to identify and distinguish between certain colours.


A colposcopy is a simple procedureused to look at the cervix, the lower partof the wombat thetop of the vagina.It's oftendone if Smear test finds abnormal cells in your cervix.


A coma is a state of unconsciousness where a person is unresponsive and cannot be woken.

Compartment syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a painful and potentially serious condition caused by bleeding or swelling withinan enclosed bundle of muscles known as a muscle "compartment".


Concussion is the sudden but short-lived loss of mental function that occurs after a blow or other injury to the head. It is the most common but least serious type of brain injury.

Congenital heart disease

Congenital heart disease is a general term for a range of birth defects that affect the normal workings of the heart.


Conjunctivitis is a common condition that causes redness and inflammation of the thin layer of tissue that covers the front of the eye (the conjunctiva).

Consent to treatment

Consent to treatment is the principle that a person must give permission before they receive any type of medical treatment, testor examination. This must be done on the basis ofan explanation by a clinician.


Constipation is a common condition that affects people of all ages. It can mean that you're not passing stools regularly or you're unable to completely empty your bowel.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a type of eczematriggered bycontact with a particular substance.

Cornea transplant

A cornea transplant is an operation to remove all or part of a damaged cornea and replace it with healthydonor tissue.

Corns and calluses

Corns and calluses are areas of hard, thickened skin that develop when the skin is exposed to excessive pressure or friction. They commonly occur on the feet and can cause pain and discomfort when you walk.

Coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease is the term that describes what happens when your heart's blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries.


A cough is a reflex action to clear your airways of mucus and irritants such as dust or smoke.It's rarely a sign of anything serious.


Counselling is a type of talking therapy that allows a person to talk about their problems and feelings in a confidential and dependable environment.


Cradle cap

Cradle cap is the greasy, yellow scaly patches that sometimes appear on the scalps of young babies.


Craniosynostosis is a rare skull problem that causes a baby to be born with, or develop, an abnormally shaped head.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a long-term condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system.

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism)is a collection of symptoms caused byvery high levels of a hormone called cortisol in the body.

Cyclical vomiting syndrome

Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a rare vomiting disorder most commonly seen in children, although it can affect adults too.


Cyclospora is an infection of the bowel caused by a tiny parasite called Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is usually caught from eating raw fruit and vegetables contaminated with human faeces (poo).


Cyclothymia, or cyclothymic disorder, isa mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depression).

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition in which the lungs and digestive system can become clogged with thick, sticky mucus.


A cystoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the inside of the bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope.

Chronic gastritis

Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the mucosa (lining) of the stomach which persists for a prolonged period of time, and thus leads to abdominal pain.

CT scan

A computerised tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays and a computer to create detailed images of the inside of the body. CT scans are sometimes referred to as CAT scans or computed tomography scans.

Cardiac insufficiency

Cardiac insufficiency is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by the inability of the heart to pump well enough to supply all the tissues of the body with blood.


A coronavirus is a kind of common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Most coronaviruses aren't dangerous.