Treatment

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1. The actions that must be undertaken by the patient to begin treatment:

  • The patient should take care to have as little furniture as possible.
  • If possible, the floors should be hardwood.
  • Furniture and other household items must be easily and speedily washable.
  • Doors and windows must close properly.
  • During plant pollination season, windows must remain shut, and the patient must dust the house twice daily with a wet wipe.
  • The patient must wash their pillow each month.
  • Allergic children should only play with plastic or wooden toys.
  • Patient must not have plants indoors, or any domestic animals.
  • Patients must not use pungent harsh deodorants.
  • Throughout the cleaning of the house, children must be escorted elsewhere.

 

2. Pharmacological therapy

  • Antihistamines (second generation, lesser side-effects like arrhythmia, palpitations, hypertension). Antihistamines will relieve urticaria, rhinitis, runny noses, sneezing, conjunctivitis, vasomotor rhinitis, itching. Antihistamines can also be used in attempting to treat vomiting spells, at times also used as sedatives to induce drowsiness. Antihistamines of the 2 generation (loratadine, cytyrisine) have an advantage over first generation drugs since effects last for up to 12 hours. 
  • Decongestants, used locally in solution form, have a vasoconstrictive effect (constrict nasal blood vessel). Blood flux in the vessels decreases, and this leads to thawing of nasal secretions. (Effedrin, phenyleffrin etc). This medication has several side effects, thus they are prescribed in low dosages for short periods of time.
  • Bronchodilators. Teophiline is generally used. Salbutamol, which aids in improving respiration in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma. Salmeterolum and Formoterolum, which have a prolonged effect of up to 12 hours, and are widely used.
  • Anti-inflammatory medication (corticosteroids), wide usage. Given that asthma is an inflammatory process, they have an anti-inflammatory effect on the bronchial mucosa, they heal and intervene in order to reduce asthmatic attacks. Given that this medication is taken via inhalation, the side effects are lesser. They are emphasized if medication is heavily used of prolonged periods of time. They can sometimes lead to hoarseness. The prescription of these drugs must be limited for children (hinders growth). They must be regularly used for significant periods of time, since the initial effect of the medication becomes apparent in a months time, and further effects visible after a year.
  • Immunotherapy with allergens, vaccines.

 

A very important aspect of overcoming allergic conditions is the education of the patient in regards to lifestyle choices because the elimination of contact with allergens affects the severity of his condition.

 

Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 22 Aug 2017
Medical Author: Dr. med. Diana Hysi