Complications of hepatitis C

If left untreated,hepatitis C can sometimes cause scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). This can develop up to 20 years or more after you first become infected.

Anumber of things can increase your risk of getting Cirrhosis , including:

  • drinking alcohol
  • having type 2 diabetes
  • gettinghepatitis C at an older age
  • having HIV or another type of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B

Overall,up to one in every three people infected with hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis within 20 to 30 years. Some of these will then go on to develop liver failure or liver cancer .


If you have cirrhosis,the scarred tissue in your liver gradually replaces healthy tissue and prevents the liver from working properly.

There are usually few symptoms in the early stages. But as your liver loses its ability to function properly, you mayexperience:

  • tiredness and weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • feeling sick
  • very itchy skin
  • tenderness or pain in your tummy
  • tiny red lines (blood capillaries) on the skin
  • yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes ( jaundice )

Other than a liver transplant , there's no cure for cirrhosis. However, lifestyle measures and hepatitis C medicationscan helpstop the condition getting worse.

This is known as liver failure or end stage liver disease.

Each year, around1 in every20 people with hepatitis-associated cirrhosis will develop liver failure.

Symptoms of liver failure include:

  • hair loss
  • build-up of fluid in the legs, ankles and feet ( oedema )
  • build-up of fluid in your tummy (ascites)
  • dark urine
  • black, tarry stools or very pale stools
  • frequent nosebleeds and bleeding gums
  • a tendency to bruise easily
  • vomiting blood

It's usually possible to live with liver failurefor several years by taking medication. However, a liver transplant is currently the only way to cure the condition.

Liver cancer

It's estimated that around1 in every 20 people with hepatitis-associated cirrhosis will develop liver cancer each year.

Symptoms of liver cancer caninclude:

  • loss of appetite
  • unexplained weight loss
  • tiredness
  • feeling and being sick
  • pain or swelling in your tummy
  • jaundice

Unfortunately, it'snotusually possible to cure liver cancer, especially in people with cirrhosis, althoughtreatment can help control your symptoms and slow the spread of the cancer.

Content supplied by the NHS Website

Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 29 Nov 2016