Borderline personality disorder
There's no single cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and it's likely to be caused by a combination offactors.
The things that are likely to contribute to BPD are explained below.
Genes you inherit from your parents may make you morevulnerable to developing BPD.
One study found that if one identical twin had BPD, there was a two-in-three chance that the other identical twin would also have BPD.
However, these results have to be treated with caution, and there's no evidenceof a gene for BPD.
It's thought that many people with BPDhave something wrong with theneurotransmitters in their brain, particularly serotonin.
Neurotransmitters are "messenger chemicals" used by your brain to transmit signals between brain cells.Altered levels of serotoninhavebeen linked to depression, aggression anddifficulty controlling destructive urges.
Researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to study the brains of people with BPD. MRI scans use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of the body.
The scans revealed that in many people with BPD, three parts of the brain were either smaller than expected or had unusual levels of activity. These parts were:
Problems with these parts of the brain may well contribute to symptoms of BPD.
The development of these parts of the brain is affected by your early upbringing (see below). These parts of your brainare also responsible for mood regulation,which may account forsome of the problems people with BPD have in close relationships.
Anumber of environmental factors seem to be common and widespread among people with BPD. These include:
A person's relationship with their parents and family has a strong influence on how they come to see the world and what they believe about other people.
Unresolved fear, anger and distress from childhood can lead to a variety of distorted adult thinking patterns, such as:
Read about borderline personality disorder. Personality disorders can cause a range of distressing symptoms and patterns of abnormal behaviour.
Read about symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD), which include emotional instability, impulsive behaviour and intense, yet unstable, relationships with others.
Read about the causes of borderline personality disorder (BPD). It's likely to be caused by a combination of factors
Read about diagnosing borderline personality disorder (BPD). If your GP suspects BPD, you'll usually be referred to your local community mental health team (CMHT)
Read about treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD), which may involve psychotherapy, a type of talking therapy