Brain tumour, malignant (cancerous)
If you have a malignant brain tumour, you'llusually need surgery to remove as much of it as possible. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy maythen be used to treat any remaining cancerous tissue.
The aim of this is to remove or destroy as much of the tumour as possible, ideally getting rid of thecancerous cells completely. However, this isn't always possible and mostmalignantbrain tumours will eventually return after treatment.
If your tumour does return after treatment, or youhave a secondary brain tumour (where cancer has spread to your brain from another part of your body), a cure isn't usually possible. Treatmentcan insteadbe usedto control your symptoms andprolong life.
There are a number of different treatments formalignant brain tumours, and deciding on what you feel is the best treatment can be confusing.
A group of different specialists called a multidisciplinary team (MDT) will be involved in your care and will recommend what they think is the best treatment option for you, but the final decision will be yours.
Before visiting hospital to discuss your treatment options, you may find it useful to write a list of questions that you'd like to ask. For example, you may want to find out the advantages and disadvantages of particular treatments.
The main treatments used are described below.
Surgery will be recommended for most people with a malignant brain tumour. If the size or position of the tumour mean surgery is not possible, one or more of the treatments described below may be recommended instead.
The main operation used to treat people with brain tumours is called a craniotomy. You will be given a general anaesthetic so you are asleep while theprocedure is carried out. An area of your scalp will be shaved and a section of the skull is cut out as a flap to reveal the brain and tumour underneath.
The surgeon can then remove asmuch of the tumour as possible and secure the flap of skull back in place with metal screws.
After surgery, treatment withradiotherapyand/or chemotherapy may be recommended to kill any cancer cells left behind and reduce the risk of the tumour coming back.
Radiotherapy is a treatment where a beam ofhigh-energy radiationis focused on the tumour to kill the cancerous cells. It can be used after surgery or as the main treatment for tumours thatare difficult to remove.
Radiotherapy isusually given in several doses (fractions) spread over the course of a week. An entire course of treatment will usually last up to six weeks in total.
Possible side effects of radiotherapy for a brain tumour include nausea, temporary hair loss , tiredness and red, sore skin. However, this is only suitable in very specific cases and currently you'll need to be referredfor treatment abroad if your doctor thinks it's appropriate.
Chemotherapy is medication used to kill cancerous cells. It may beused alongside radiotherapy or on itsown, eitherto help kill any cancerous cells leftbehind after surgery or to help relieve your symptoms when a cure is not possible.
Chemotherapy medication for brain tumours can be given in a number of ways, including as:
The side effects of chemotherapy largely depend on the specific medication you're taking. Common general side effects include tiredness, headaches, temporary hair loss and nausea. Recoverytends to be much fasterand an overnight stay isn't usuallynecessary.
However, radiosurgery is currently only available in a few specialised centres across the UK and is only suitable for certain people, based on the characteristics of their tumour.
You may also be given medication to relieve some of the symptoms you mayhave as a result of yourbrain tumour.
These may include:
Depending on your circumstances, these medications may be given before, after, or instead of surgery.
If your tumour is at an advanced stage or in a difficult place in the brain, a cure may not be possible and treatment may only be able to control the cancer for a period of time. This means you will be getting the side effects of treatment without getting rid of the tumour.
In this situation, it may be difficult to decide whether or not to go ahead with treatment. Talk to your doctor about what will happen if you choose not to be treated, so you can make an informed decision.
If you decide not to have treatment, you will still be given palliative care , which will control your symptoms and make you as comfortable as possible.
A malignant brain tumour is a fast-growing cancer that spreads to other areas of the brain and spine.
The symptoms of a malignant brain tumour depend on how big it is and where it is in the brain.
Most malignant brain tumours are caused by a cancer that started somewhere else in the body and spread to the brain, through the bloodstream.
If you develop the symptoms of a brain tumour, such as a persistent and severe headache, see your GP.
If you have a malignant brain tumour, you'll usually need surgery to remove as much of it as possible.
Malignant brain tumours often grow back after treatment, so regular follow-up appointments will be recommended to look for signs that this may have happened.
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