Dystonia with no obvious cause, orcaused bya genetic mutation, is known as primary dystonia. If dystonia is a symptom of another condition, it's known as secondary dystonia.
Most people with primary dystonia don't have an identified cause. A minority of cases are associated with genetic mutations, which usually begin in childhood.
There are currently over 12 types (or sub-types) of dystonia linked to genetic mutations, including generalised dystonia, dopa-responsive dystonia and paroxysmal dystonia.
This means if you have one of these abnormal genes, there's a one in two chance your children will inherit that gene and develop dystonia.
Secondary dystonia, also known as acquired dystonia, can have a wide range of causes, including:
Dystonia is a medical term for a range of movement disorders that cause muscle spasms and contractions. The spasms and contractions may either be sustained or may come and go.
The symptoms of dystonia can vary, depending on the type of dystonia and when it develops.
Dystonia with no obvious cause, or caused by a genetic mutation, is known as primary dystonia. If dystonia is a symptom of another condition, it's known as secondary dystonia.
Diagnosing dystonia isn't straightforward. It involves using a stepwise approach that starts by identifying the precise nature and specific features of your movement disorders.
A number of treatment techniques can be used to help control the involuntary movements and spasms of dystonia.