Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high.
There aretwo main types of diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. Inthe UK,around 90% of all adultswith diabetes have type 2.
During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable toproduce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes .
Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes.
This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. Ifyour blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased.
It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated.
Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include:
Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days.
Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general.
The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach).
When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce energy.
However,if you havediabetes, yourbody is unable to break down glucose into energy. This is because there's either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or the insulin produced doesn't work properly.
Although there are no lifestyle changes you can make to lower your risk of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is often linked to being overweight.
Read about how to reduce your diabetes risk .
If you're diagnosed with diabetes, you'll need to eat healthily , take regular exercise and carry out regular blood teststo ensure your blood glucose levels stay balanced.
You can use the BMI healthy weight calculator to check whether you're a healthyweight.
People diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also require regularinsulin injections for the rest of their life.
As type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, medication may eventually be required, usually in the form of tablets.
Treating type 1 diabetes
Treating type 2 diabetes
Living with diabetes
Everyone with diabetes aged 12 or over should be invited to have their eyes screened once a year.
If you have diabetes, your eyes are at risk from diabetic retinopathy, a condition that can lead to sight loss if it's not treated.
Screening, which involvesa half-hour check to examine the back of the eyes,is a way of detecting the condition early so it can be treated more effectively.