A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease.
It diverts blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.
Over 20,000 coronary artery bypass grafts are carried out around the world every year. Most of these are carried out in men, and around 80% are used to treat people who are at least 60 years of age.
Like all organs in the body, the heart needs a constant supply of blood. This is supplied by two large blood vessels called the left and right coronary arteries.
Over time, these arteries can become narrowed and hardened by the build-up of fatty deposits called plaques. This process is known as atherosclerosis . People with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are said to have coronary heart disease .
Your chances of developing coronary heart increase with age. You're also much more likely to be affected if:
Coronary heart disease can cause angina , which is chest pain that occurs when the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart becomes restricted. While many cases of angina can be treated with medication, severe angina may require a coronary artery bypass graft to improve the blood supply to the heart.
Another risk associated with coronary heart disease is the possibility of one of the plaques in the coronary artery rupturing (splitting), creating a blood clot. If the blood clot blocks the blood supply to the heart, it can trigger a heart attack . Therefore, acoronary artery bypass graft may also be recommended to reduce your chances of having a heart attack.
Acoronary artery bypass graft involves taking a blood vessel from another part of the body usually the chest, leg or arm and attaching it to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage. This new blood vessel is known as a graft.
The number of grafts needed will depend on how severe your coronary heart disease is and how many of the coronary blood vesselsare narrowed.
Acoronary artery bypass graft is carried out under general anaesthetic , which means you'll be unconscious during the operation. It usually takes between three and six hours.
Generally, you should be able to sit in a chair after one day, walk after three days and walk up and down stairs after five or six days.
When you go home, you'll need to take things easy for a few weeks. You should be able to return to most of your normal activities after about six weeks, including working, driving, and having sex most people make a full recovery within 12 weeks.
These are usually relatively minor and treatable, such as an irregular heartbeat or a wound infection, but there's also a risk of serious complications such as a stroke or heart attack.
Overall, more than 95% of people who have acoronary artery bypass graft will live for at least one year, and around 90% will live at least five years.
If you don't make lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly , your grafted arteries will also eventually become hardened and narrowed.
In some cases, acoronary artery bypass graft may need to be repeated or you may need a procedure to widen your arteries using a small balloon and a tube called a stent ( coronary angioplasty ).
It's a less invasive operation where a long, flexible hollow plastic tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in your arm or groin.
A balloon attached to the catheter is then inflated to widen the artery and a small metal tube called a stent is often used to help keep the artery open.
Itusually takes less time to recover from a coronary angioplasty than from a coronary artery bypass graft, but there's a higher chance that the procedure will need to be repeated.
Also, acoronary angioplasty may not be recommended if multiple coronary arteries have become blocked and narrowed or the structure of the blood vessels near your heart is abnormal.
Blood supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide. It is pumped around the body by the heart.
Blood vessels are the tubes in which blood travels to and from parts of the body. The three main types of blood vessels are veins, arteries and capillaries.
A bypass is when the flow of blood or other fluid is redirected, permanently because of a blockage in the body, or temporarily during an operation.
Coronary angioplasty is surgery to open up arteries in the heart that have been blocked or narrowed by fatty deposits.
The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood around the body.
Oxygen is an odourless, colourless gas that makes up about 20% of the air we breathe.
A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease. It diverts blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.
It's a good idea to be well prepared before going into hospital to have a coronary arterybypass graft (CABG). You may find the advice below useful: get informed find out as much as you can about what your operation involves, arrange help to help you at home after coming home from hospital, sort out transport to take you home, etc.
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery usually lasts three to six hours. However, it may take longer depending on how many blood vessels are being grafted. Blood vessels can be taken from your leg (saphenous vein), inside your chest (internal mammary artery) or your arm (radial artery).
You'll usually need to stay in hospital for around seven days after having a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), so medical staff can closely monitor your recovery. During this time, you may be attached to various tubes, drips and drains that provide you with fluids and allow blood and urine to drain away.
As with all types of surgery, a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) carries risks of complications. Some of the main complications associated with acoronary artery bypass graft are irregular heartbeat, infection, reduced kidney function, brain problems and heart attacks.
After you've been discharged from hospital, you may experience some side effects as a result of the operation. These can include: loss of appetite, Constipation, back pain, tiredness and difficulty sleeping, feeling upset or having mood swings
A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) isn't a cure for heart disease, so it's important to adopt a healthy lifestyle and continue taking any prescribed medication after the operation to reduce your risk of getting heart problems in the future.
If you have coronary heart disease and the arteries around your heart are severely narrowed, it may be possible to have a procedure called a coronary angioplasty instead of a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).
Chauffeur Alec Keep, aged 66 when interviewed, had a heart bypass in March 2007 in Papworth Hospital, after he had two heart attacks.