A phobia is an overwhelming and debilitating fear of an object, place, situation, feeling or animal .
Phobias are more pronounced than fears. They develop whena person has an exaggerated or unrealistic sense of danger about a situation or object.
If a phobia becomes very severe, a person may organise their life around avoiding the thing that's causing them anxiety. As well as restricting their day-to-day life, it can also cause a lot of distress.
A phobia is a type of Generalised anxiety disorder . You may not experience any symptoms until you come into contact with the sourceof your phobia.
However, in some cases, even thinking about the source of a phobiacan make a person feel anxious or panicky.This is known as anticipatory anxiety.
Symptoms may include:
If you don't come into contact with the source of your phobia very often, it may not affect your everyday life. However, if you have a complex phobia such as agoraphobia (see below), leading a normal life may be very difficult.
However, phobias can be divided into two main categories:
The two categories are discussed below.
Specific or simple phobias centre around a particular object, animal, situation or activity. They often develop during childhood or adolescence and may become less severe as you get older.
Common examples of simple phobiasinclude:
Complex phobias tend to be more disabling than simple phobias. They tend to develop during adulthood and are often associated with a deep-rooted fear or anxiety about a particular situation orcircumstance.
The two most common complex phobias are:
Agoraphobia is often thought of as a fear of open spaces, but it's much more complex than this. Someone with agoraphobia will feel anxious about being in a place or situation where escaping may be difficult if they have a panic attack.
The anxiety usually results in the person avoiding situations such as:
Social phobia, also known as social anxiety disorder, centres around feeling anxious in social situations.
If you have a social phobia, you might be afraid of speaking in front of people for fear of embarrassing yourself and being humiliated in public.
In severe cases, this can become debilitating and may prevent you from carrying out everyday activities, such as eating out or meeting friends.
Phobias don't have a single cause, but there are a number of associated factors. For example:
Most people with a phobia are fully aware of the problem.
A person willsometimes choose to live with a phobia, taking great care to avoid the object or situation they're afraid of. However, if you have a phobia, continually trying to avoid what you're afraid of will make the situation worse.
If you have a phobia, you should seek help from your GP. They may refer you to a specialist with expertise in behavioural therapy, such as a psychologist.
Almost all phobias can be successfully treated and cured.
Simple phobias can be treated through gradual exposure to the object, animal, place or situation that causes fear and anxiety. This is known as desensitisation or self-exposure therapy.
You could try these methods with the help of a professional or as part of a self-help programme .
Treating complex phobias often takes longer and involves talking therapies, such as:
Medication isn't usually used to treat phobias. However, it's sometimes prescribed to help people cope with the effects of anxiety. Medications that may beused include:
A phobia is an overwhelming fear of an object, place, situation, feeling or animal.
All phobias, particularly complex phobias, such as agoraphobia and social phobia, can limit your daily activities and may cause severe anxiety and depression.
A phobia can develop during childhood, adolescence or early adulthood.
Many people with a phobia don't need treatment, and avoiding the object of their fear is enough to control the problem.
Each phobia is different and no single self-help programme will work for everyone. You may use your own self-help strategy or get help from a mental health specialist.
Claire Ledger was diagnosed with agoraphobia after she had a panic attack while shopping in her local high street.