Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:
For example, if your blood pressure is "140 over 90", or 140/90mmHg, it means you have a systolic pressure of 140mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 90mmHg.
As a general guide:
A blood pressure reading between 120/80mmHg and 140/90mmHg could mean you're at risk of developing high blood pressure if you don't take steps to keep your blood pressure under control.
Normal values include 100-140 mmHg for the systolic pressure and 60-90 mmHg for diastolic pressure. An individual is considered hypertensive if they experience a maximal arterial pressure of above 160 mmHg and a minimal arterial pressure of above 95 mmHg.
In between the normal and pathological values lies an intermediate zone of 141-160 mmHg for the systolic pressure and 91-95 mmHg for the diastolic pressure, which is considered to be a threshold hypertension or pre-hypertension. This is to be assessed by a physician according to the age of the individual, their emotional state, relative fatigue, environmental conditions, etc.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension is usually made by evaluating the values of arterial pressure, and assessing whether or not they are above what is considered ‘normal’. This criterion defines which individuals face increased risks for heart and blood vessel damage. However, a decisive diagnosis cannot be made solely by this evaluation.
It must, instead, be evaluated by taking into consideration any potential underlying vascular issues. In this way, measuring arterial pressure, cannot be used as an appropriate indicator of blood vessel damage.
Introducing more precise methods in order to control the overall status of the arteries in a patient suffering from arterial hypertension is one of the most imminent unresolved demands in medical technology nowadays.
High blood pressure (hypertension) doesn't usually have any symptoms, so the only way to find out if you have it is to get your blood pressure checked.
Healthy adults aged over 40 should have their blood pressure checked at least once every five years.
If you're at an increased risk of high blood pressure, you should have your blood pressure checked more often ideally once a year.
Having this done is easy and could save your life.
You can ask for a blood pressure check you don't have to wait to be offered one.
Blood pressure test is available:
You can also test your blood pressure at home using a home testing kit.
A stethoscope, arm cuff, pump, and dial was normally used to measure your blood pressure, but automatic devices with sensors and digital displays are commonly used nowadays.
It's best to sit down with your back supported and legs uncrossed for at least five minutes before the test.
You'll usually need to roll up your sleeves or remove any long-sleeved clothing so the cuff can be placed around your upper arm. Try to relax and avoid talking while the test is carried out.
During the test:
You can usually find out your result straight away, either from the healthcare professional carrying out the test or on the digital display.
If your blood pressure is high, you may be advised to record your blood pressure at home to confirm whether you have high blood pressure.
Having a raised blood pressure reading in one test doesn't necessarily mean you have high blood pressure.
Blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day. Feeling anxious or stressed when you visit your GP can also raise your blood pressure.
If you have a high reading, you may be asked to take some readings with a home blood pressure monitor or wear a 24-hour monitor that checks your blood pressure throughout the day. This will confirm whether you have consistently high blood pressure.
This is known as 24-hour or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).
Blood pressure tests can also be carried out at home using your own digital blood pressure monitor.
Like 24-hour or ambulatory monitoring, this can give a better reflection of your blood pressure. It can also allow you to monitor your condition more easily in the long term.
You can buy a variety of low-cost monitors so you can test your blood pressure at home or while you're out and about.
It's important to make sure you use equipment that has been properly tested.
Hypertensive disease is characterized by a spike in maximal pressure, which is also called systolic pressure, or the rise of minimal pressure (diastolic) above normal values. Usually it is the systolic pressure that rises more so than the diastolic.
Factors that affect the onset of symptoms include constitutive genetic factors, neurogenic factors, environmental factors. And other factors like age and gender, profession, smoking, and intoxication.
Simple lifestyle changes can often help reduce high blood pressure (hypertension), although some people may need to take medication as well. Whether medication is recommended depends on your blood pressure reading and your risk of developing problems such as heart attacks or strokes.
High blood pressure can often be prevented or reduced by eating healthily, maintaining a healthy weight, taking regular exercise, drinking alcohol in moderation and not smoking.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension is usually made by evaluating the values of arterial pressure, and assessingÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â whether or notÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â they are above what is considered ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‹Å“normalÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢. This criterion defines which individuals face increased risks for heart and blood vessel damage.
Arterial pressure should be measured while the patient is lying down, and after they have rested for several minutes. The patient must feel calm and relaxed. Arterial pressure is measured by using an apparatus called aÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â sphygmomanometerÃƒâ€šÃ‚Â or a blood pressure meter.
Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension which is caused as a consequence of another condition. Patients suffer from arterial hypertension randomly. Following the appropriate examinations, it is discovered that this type of hypertension is caused as a result of another disease.
Diseases and conditions which may cause secondary hypertension are hypertension caused by kidney disease, renovascular hypertension, hypertension due to endocrine disease, hemodynamic hypertension, hypertension caused by pregnancy, hypertension due to consumption of contraceptive substances.