A Stroke can be Ischemic or Hemorrhagic
Since these two types of stroke develop via different mechanisms, the treatment is accordingly different.
Important for the treatment of strokes is preventing the disease a long time in advance, in order to minimize chances of becoming permanently handicapped or dying.
Medication and assistance during the acute phase are especially important for the development of the disease. The diagnostic challenges encountered in the initial stages make deciding on a medication course more difficult.
In the very first hours following the symptoms, physicians try to avoid employing the following treatments:
Rest is absolutely necessary. For patients who are exceedingly agitated and anxious, physicians may decide to use sedatives. Great care should be taken in choosing these medications.
Usually barbiturates such as chloral hydrate are used, whereas there is a contraindication toward using morphine and its derivatives.
Patients are instructed to lie down on their side with their upper body slightly elevated (lateral decubitus), in order to prevent pulmonary complications and decubitus.
The mouth and eyes should be thoroughly cleansed. Great care should be taken with the respiratory tract, in order to avoid swallowing their tongue or aspirating their secretions, the patients are instructed to turn their head to the side.
A supply of oxygen is also made available to the patient. All pharyngeal and tracheal secretions are aspirated with a medical aspirator and in special cases a tracheotomy must be performed (using a scalpel to open the trachea from the neck, in order to allow the patient to breathe).
It is important to pay a lot of medical attention to the blood circulation condition of the patient. If the patient has indeed suffered a stroke, the amount of blood flowing to their brain is low, and should somehow be compensated for in order to avoid any serious consequences.
Medication is taken to bring arterial pressure to normal values, as well as antibiotics in order to prevent pulmonary infections, which often can become a direct cause of death.
The medicine usually used for dissolving the thrombus is called Alteplase. This medication reestablishes blood circulation in the damaged part of the brain by dissolving the clot. Using such medication facilitates a process called thrombolysis.
This type of medication should be used in the very first hours following the onset of the disease, and it is not recommended for use after 4-5 hours, since it is not clear how efficacious this therapy is at this delayed time.
Thrombectomy is an invasive procedure which is urgently used to treat an ischemic stroke. It consists in removing the thrombus (via aspiration or cutting it into smaller pieces) and restoring normal blood flow to the brain.
This procedure can only be employed if the thrombus is located in large arteries of the brain. The sooner the procedure is done, the more effective it is.
This procedure consists in inserting a catheter through the femoral artery in the thigh. Through there the catheter is threaded all the way to the brain. The thrombus is removed by aspirating it or by cutting it into smaller pieces. This entire procedure is conducted while using either local or general anesthesia.
Many individuals regularly use aspirin, which has been shown to have a very effective antithrombotic influence. Using aspirin lowers the chances of a blood clot forming.
Other medications that may also be used either individually or in conjunction to aspirin include Clopidogral and Depiridamol.
Anticoagulants are drugs that reduce the risk for a blood clot. Preparations such as warfarin, edoxaban, rivaroxaban are commonly used for prolonged periods of time in order to prevent the formation of a thrombus.
Rivaroxaban is an especially useful drug, since patients can take it without getting the prothrombin index test (International Normalized Ratio (INR)).
Since the other anticoagulants are more dangerous and more prone to causing hemorrhage, the INR test needs to be taken continuously on a regular basis. In order for a patient to be considered fully under the effect of the anticoagulant the prothrombin index needs to remain in the 25-40 range.
In normal individuals, meaning those who don’t use anticoagulants, the values obtained should remain within the norm 70-100.
Heparin, enoxaparin and other such anticoagulants are injectable drugs that are used for a short amount of time.
These are a group of drugs which may be used individually or combined in order to maintain arterial tension within the normal range, and thus reduce the risk for stroke.
This group includes:
This group of drugs is used to restore the balance of lipids in the blood. Lipid disorders in the blood may become the cause for forming atherosclerotic plaques, hence using such drugs is necessary to lower the risk for developing atherosclerosis.
By consequence, using these drugs can lower the risk for cardiovascular and cerebral disease.
For patients suffering from a severe constriction of the carotid arteries of the neck, an invasive method may be used, by performing surgery to open the artery and manually remove the atherosclerotic plaque.
In a majority of cases, these patients need surgical treatment, which may be the only way to save the patient’s life.
Surgery involved repairing the damaged vessels in order to restore normal circulation to the brain.
Surgery may be used in order to treat a complication that may occur as a result of a stroke, called hydrocephalus. This occurs due to an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the brain which manifests in headaches, nausa, vomiting, vertigo, weakness, etc.
In order to treat this, a tube is inserted into the brain in order to drain the fluid and relieve pressure from the brain.
Strokes occur suddenly and all at once; they pose a very serious threat to a patient’s life. This condition requires immediate medical attention.
A stroke is a very severe condition. Immediate medical attention is necessary; the medical staff usually conducts a series of examinations and medical procedures to offer first aid.
Due to another disease or condition, a blood vessel in a certain area of the brain may rupture (break) and cause the blood to spread to the surrounding tissue and damage it.
At the onset of a stroke, a few main symptoms should be notices, which are easy to remember by using the acronym F.A.S.T. (Face, Arms, Speech, Time).
A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. A stroke is a medical condition medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.
A person’s emotional state is an important factor in the function and development of their daily activities. Anxiety, depression and stress are conditions which compromise and affect a person’s daily life.
Risk factors for stroke, that are worth mentioning include: Atherosclerosis (Depositing of lipids in the lumen of blood vessels in the form of plaques), High blood pressure, Lack of physical activity, Obesity, Continuous consumption of alcohol, Smoking, etc.
It could occur that prior to a patient experiencing a stroke, they may experience warning signs. A few days or weeks in advance they may experience light symptoms such as unusual headaches, a light lip distortion, numbness in the arm or leg, vertigo, brief loss of vision, difficulties articulating, amnesia, etc.
There are different types of Stroke, they include: brain stroke of the ischemic type, brain stroke due to hemorrhage (cerebral hemorrhage) and hemorrhages due to the rupture of blood vessels or due to vascular malformation, etc.
A stroke due to a hemorrhage occurs more rarely than a cerebral ischemia. The major cause for this type of stroke is arterial hypertension.
The causes of Transitory Ischemia include: a blood clot, the narrowing of blood vessels in the brain, diabetes, high cholesterol levels.
Hypertensive encephalopathy is an acute syndrome during which severe hypertension is accompanied by headaches, nausea and vomiting, confusion, convulsions, stupor (somnolence) and coma, and other transitory neurological symptoms.
Shortly after the patient arrives at the hospital, physicians look for the typical symptoms of a stroke. These symptoms involve; Symptoms evident in the face, its retraction to one side (the face seems to droop on one side), problems with the limbs, (usually arms), hands and legs are numb or cannot be moved, etc.
A Stroke can be Ischemic or Hemorrhagic. Since these two types of stroke develop via different mechanisms, the treatment is accordingly different. Important for the treatment of strokes is preventing the disease a long time in advance.
A stroke is a serious and life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.
A stroke is a severe condition and a serious threat, which requires immediate medical intervention. This disease is a major cause for invalidity and mortality in the world. Strokes are ranked third in the world in regards to mortality.
If you suspect that you or someone else is having a stroke, phone 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance. Even if the symptoms of a stroke disappear while you are waiting for the ambulance to arrive, you or the person having the stroke should still go to hospital for an assessment.
There are two main types of stroke - ischaemic strokes and haemorrhagic strokes - which affect the brain in different ways and can have different causes. Ischaemic strokes are the most common type of stroke.
Strokes are usually diagnosed by carrying out physical tests and studying images of the brain produced during a scan. Even if the physical symptoms of a stroke are obvious, brainscans should also be carried out to determine: if the stroke has been caused by a blocked artery (ischaemic stroke) or burst blood vessel (haemorrhagic stroke), which part of the brain has been affected, how severe the stroke is.
Effective treatment of stroke can prevent long-term disability and save lives. If your blood pressure is too high, you may be offered medicines to lower it. Medicines that are commonly used include: thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers. Some ischaemic strokes are caused by narrowing of an artery in the neck called the carotid artery, which carries blood to the brain. The narrowing, known as carotid stenosis, is caused by a build-up of fatty plaques.
Two of the mostcommon psychological problems that can affect people after a stroke are: Depression many people experience intense bouts of crying and feel hopeless and withdrawn from social activities, anxiety where people experience general feelings of fear and anxiety, sometimes punctuated by intense, uncontrolled feelings of anxiety (anxiety attacks). The injury to the brain caused by a stroke can lead to widespread and long-lasting problems.
The best way to prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and avoid smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. Ensuring a balance in your diet is important. If you have not fully recovered from your stroke, you may find that you will have become particularly sensitive to alcohol and even the recommended safe limits as above for the general population may be too much for you.
Jim Whyte was forced to give up work after having a stroke, but he's proved that there is life after a stroke. Jim had high blood pressure and was diabetic, which are both risk factors for stroke. However, he had never smoked and, due to his diabetes, was already following the healthy diet recommended for stroke survivors.
Having a stroke on the first day of his summer holiday was the last thing Stephen Harnet expected, especially as he was a healthy 32-year-old at the time. It turned out that the stroke was due to a condition I was born with called AVM (arteriovenous malformation), which is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels (arteries and veins), and can affect the brain and lead to a stroke. Before the stroke I was a technical manager working 12-hour days, seven days a week.
David Diston had a major stroke that left him paralysed down his right side and unable to speak. Now he has made a near total recovery, and has even run a marathon. He woke up in an assessment ward at Swindons Princess Margaret Hospital. He had no feeling or movement down his right side, and he couldn't speak. After a few days, he was moved to a specialist stroke unit where the doctors explained that he would have to learn to speak, write and walk again from scratch.
Manjit Bains was just 26 when he had a stroke. Determination, support from his family and friends and rehabilitation helped him get his life. "This hasn't been a solo journey. I've had a lot of support, including psychologists and counselling. After intensive care I was nursed on a medical ward at the hospital where I had been working."
Before June/ 17/ 2000, Jane Stokes CBE was a successful lawyer with a 25-year career in the civil service. She says her lifestyle may have raised her risk of a stroke. As a smoker, she had developed a two-pack-a-day habit. She drank moderately and neglected her fitness when her career began to take over. Recovery is a long process.