A cerebral ischemic insult is caused by the presence of a thrombus in blood vessel in the brain. Usually, the thrombus is formed in patients who exhibit arterial disorders, often in patients with damages caused by cerebral atherosclerosis.
Large white atheroma plaques are formed in the vicinity of vascular bifurcations (when blood vessels split in a V shape).
These are usually encountered in ages above 50 in all of the blood vessels in the body.
The formation of thrombuses depends on conditions such as
In a majority of cases the disease develops in patients at an advanced age. It most often sets on while the patient is asleep. The patient observes a motor deficit when they wake up in the morning (they can’t move, or their arm or leg is asleep).
It may have occurred that a few days prior to this, they have felt
At times, patients exhibit these symptoms, 2-3 weeks or 2-3 months in advance.
Symptoms develop within a few hours or 2-3 days. In a majority of cases, the patient does not fall into a coma, instead their consciousness is clouded.
In rare cases, when the area where the infarction occurred is wise, the patient may fall into a comatose state. During examination of the patient, they exhibit flaccid sensitive motor hemiplegia, accompanied by lack of reflexes and clouded consciousness. When the hemiplegia is not complete, prognosis tends to be more favorable.
Mitral stenosis (as well as atrial fibrillation) is one of the most common causes of cerebral embolism.
An embolism can also be caused by a case of sub acute bacterial endocarditis. The infected emboluses released from the lungs may also cause cerebral abcesses. The area that becomes damaged mainly depends on the localization and dimensions of the embolus.
The changes that occur in the brain following an embolism are similar to those that occur during a cerebral infarction. Fat embolisms can come as a consequence of fracturing long bones, which can then reach the brain via circulatory pathways.
The onset of a cerebral embolism is immediate and sudden, faster than the onset of a cerebral hemorrhage, it is not always accompanied with loss of consciousness, but a clouding of consciousness and confusion are common.
It is also accompanied by very severe headaches. Usually, cerebral embolisms have favorable prognoses, with the exception of cases when the embolus obstructs major blood vessels, which may lead to death.
The most common cause of a subarachnoid hemorrhage is the rupture of an aneurism. More rarely one may encounter this type of hemorrhage in cases of acute meningitis.
Subarachnoid hemorrhages are divided into primary and secondary hemorrhages. When the anterior cerebral artery is affected, the hemorrhage occurs in the frontal region.
The clinical aspects of these hemorrhages are different. At times, a comatose may develop unexpectedly.
The condition usually exhibits a prodromal stage characterized by
It is however, possible that the condition may develop
Usually subarachnoid hemorrhages exhibit severe headaches in the occipital and parietal region.
The patient exhibits
In the best cases, the condition of the patient improves upon beginning mediation, whereas in unfavorable cases, the condition worsens and the patient suffers a slow death.
In these cases, a cerebral angiography is most helpful, as well as an electroencephalography (EEG), in determining the diagnosis.
The prognosis of this type of hemorrhage depends
Approximately a third of patients suffer from fatal first attacks, and nearly half may suffer from recidivism, which occurs during the first month of the attack.
The development of a comatose state, heart rate and breathing disruptions as well as a high fever are all signs indicating an unfavorable prognosis.
Cerebral hemorrhages occur
Hemorrhages occurring due to arterial malformation are mostly encountered among young patients, whereas atheromatosis is usually a disease most common among patients older than 50.
It occurs due to the rupture of the lenticulostriate artery. It is one of the most severe and common cases of hemorrhage.
This condition is most common in patients over 50 years of age and patients suffering from hypertension and atherosclerosis. It can lead to death, or leave patients with severe consequences.
The onset of the disease is sudden:
The patient exhibits hemiplegia and in more moderate cases, they may remain conscious, they complain of a headache that is accompanied by hemiparesis.
Patients who fall into a coma do not react to extrinsic stimuli, at times they appear
At times, the patient begins to improve within 2-3 days, and they come out of the coma, sometimes even after 7-10 days.
With the passage of time, the hemiplegia may improve. Movement can be regained in the lower extremities first.
In patients with aphasia, the patients may begin to articulate a few words, but they are not in a condition where they can conduct a full conversation.
This type of hemorrhage is usually located in the frontal, temporal or occipital region. This type of hemorrhage is not usually accompanied with loss of consciousness, develops more gradually.
The patient complains of a headache, vomiting and then hemiplegia develops. The hemiplegia first begins in the hand but then spreads to half of the body in a few minutes.
In a few cases, the condition may deteriorate, but in the majority of cases, patient recover;
This hemorrhage is located in parts of the brain that are called the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata (these three make up the brain stem). Even though the hemorrhages that may occur in these parts may be minor, they cause a variety of symptoms.
This part of the brain hosts the vasomotor centers of breathing, swallowing and where ascending and descending pathways pass.
Often these hemorrhages are accompanied by clouding of the consciousness, subcoma and coma. The onset is sudden and immediate.
These symptoms are observed when the hemorrhage is small, when massive hemorrhage occurs, death is immediate.
Ventricular hemorrhages are in general, fatal.
Ventricular hemorrhages are massive hemorrhages, where three variants may be distinguished:
The onset of ventricular hemorrhage is usually immediate. The majority of patients are brought to the hospital in an unconscious state.
Usually occurs often during the workday and is often linked to physical exertion or emotional excitation or stimuli.
Clinically, the patient exhibits severe symptoms:
These types of hemorrhages occur rarely, usually observed in younger patients, which do not suffer from either cerebral atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension.
These patients exhibit congenital malformations usually in the form of an aneurysm or an angioma, which are usually of small, limited dimensions.
The rupture (bursting) of an aneurysm is usually accompanied by hemorrhage, which leads to the formation of a hematoma within the first 10-15 days.
A cerebral angioma may develop on the surface of the cortex or deep within the brain. The development of the insult occurs gradually.
Patients suffering from these conditions often have also previously suffered from migraines or epilepsy attacks.
Causes of the hemorrhages include
And usually these hemorrhages are small and do not pose substantial risk to the patient.
When they are massive, however, they may lead to death.
This is why it is important that these cases receive immediate medical attention and are surgically treated.
Strokes occur suddenly and all at once; they pose a very serious threat to a patient’s life. This condition requires immediate medical attention.
A stroke is a very severe condition. Immediate medical attention is necessary; the medical staff usually conducts a series of examinations and medical procedures to offer first aid.
Due to another disease or condition, a blood vessel in a certain area of the brain may rupture (break) and cause the blood to spread to the surrounding tissue and damage it.
At the onset of a stroke, a few main symptoms should be notices, which are easy to remember by using the acronym F.A.S.T. (Face, Arms, Speech, Time).
A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. A stroke is a medical condition medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.
A person’s emotional state is an important factor in the function and development of their daily activities. Anxiety, depression and stress are conditions which compromise and affect a person’s daily life.
Risk factors for stroke, that are worth mentioning include: Atherosclerosis (Depositing of lipids in the lumen of blood vessels in the form of plaques), High blood pressure, Lack of physical activity, Obesity, Continuous consumption of alcohol, Smoking, etc.
It could occur that prior to a patient experiencing a stroke, they may experience warning signs. A few days or weeks in advance they may experience light symptoms such as unusual headaches, a light lip distortion, numbness in the arm or leg, vertigo, brief loss of vision, difficulties articulating, amnesia, etc.
There are different types of Stroke, they include: brain stroke of the ischemic type, brain stroke due to hemorrhage (cerebral hemorrhage) and hemorrhages due to the rupture of blood vessels or due to vascular malformation, etc.
A stroke due to a hemorrhage occurs more rarely than a cerebral ischemia. The major cause for this type of stroke is arterial hypertension.
The causes of Transitory Ischemia include: a blood clot, the narrowing of blood vessels in the brain, diabetes, high cholesterol levels.
Hypertensive encephalopathy is an acute syndrome during which severe hypertension is accompanied by headaches, nausea and vomiting, confusion, convulsions, stupor (somnolence) and coma, and other transitory neurological symptoms.
Shortly after the patient arrives at the hospital, physicians look for the typical symptoms of a stroke. These symptoms involve; Symptoms evident in the face, its retraction to one side (the face seems to droop on one side), problems with the limbs, (usually arms), hands and legs are numb or cannot be moved, etc.
A Stroke can be Ischemic or Hemorrhagic. Since these two types of stroke develop via different mechanisms, the treatment is accordingly different. Important for the treatment of strokes is preventing the disease a long time in advance.
A stroke is a serious and life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.
A stroke is a severe condition and a serious threat, which requires immediate medical intervention. This disease is a major cause for invalidity and mortality in the world. Strokes are ranked third in the world in regards to mortality.
If you suspect that you or someone else is having a stroke, phone 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance. Even if the symptoms of a stroke disappear while you are waiting for the ambulance to arrive, you or the person having the stroke should still go to hospital for an assessment.
There are two main types of stroke - ischaemic strokes and haemorrhagic strokes - which affect the brain in different ways and can have different causes. Ischaemic strokes are the most common type of stroke.
Strokes are usually diagnosed by carrying out physical tests and studying images of the brain produced during a scan. Even if the physical symptoms of a stroke are obvious, brainscans should also be carried out to determine: if the stroke has been caused by a blocked artery (ischaemic stroke) or burst blood vessel (haemorrhagic stroke), which part of the brain has been affected, how severe the stroke is.
Effective treatment of stroke can prevent long-term disability and save lives. If your blood pressure is too high, you may be offered medicines to lower it. Medicines that are commonly used include: thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers. Some ischaemic strokes are caused by narrowing of an artery in the neck called the carotid artery, which carries blood to the brain. The narrowing, known as carotid stenosis, is caused by a build-up of fatty plaques.
Two of the mostcommon psychological problems that can affect people after a stroke are: Depression many people experience intense bouts of crying and feel hopeless and withdrawn from social activities, anxiety where people experience general feelings of fear and anxiety, sometimes punctuated by intense, uncontrolled feelings of anxiety (anxiety attacks). The injury to the brain caused by a stroke can lead to widespread and long-lasting problems.
The best way to prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and avoid smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. Ensuring a balance in your diet is important. If you have not fully recovered from your stroke, you may find that you will have become particularly sensitive to alcohol and even the recommended safe limits as above for the general population may be too much for you.
Jim Whyte was forced to give up work after having a stroke, but he's proved that there is life after a stroke. Jim had high blood pressure and was diabetic, which are both risk factors for stroke. However, he had never smoked and, due to his diabetes, was already following the healthy diet recommended for stroke survivors.
Having a stroke on the first day of his summer holiday was the last thing Stephen Harnet expected, especially as he was a healthy 32-year-old at the time. It turned out that the stroke was due to a condition I was born with called AVM (arteriovenous malformation), which is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels (arteries and veins), and can affect the brain and lead to a stroke. Before the stroke I was a technical manager working 12-hour days, seven days a week.
David Diston had a major stroke that left him paralysed down his right side and unable to speak. Now he has made a near total recovery, and has even run a marathon. He woke up in an assessment ward at Swindons Princess Margaret Hospital. He had no feeling or movement down his right side, and he couldn't speak. After a few days, he was moved to a specialist stroke unit where the doctors explained that he would have to learn to speak, write and walk again from scratch.
Manjit Bains was just 26 when he had a stroke. Determination, support from his family and friends and rehabilitation helped him get his life. "This hasn't been a solo journey. I've had a lot of support, including psychologists and counselling. After intensive care I was nursed on a medical ward at the hospital where I had been working."
Before June/ 17/ 2000, Jane Stokes CBE was a successful lawyer with a 25-year career in the civil service. She says her lifestyle may have raised her risk of a stroke. As a smoker, she had developed a two-pack-a-day habit. She drank moderately and neglected her fitness when her career began to take over. Recovery is a long process.